عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, one of the most basic rights of every person, like his other rights such as the right to life, the right to marry, the right to sue or the right to defend other rights. Filing a lawsuit can be considered as claiming the violated or denied rights of individuals, which is done by submitting a lawsuit to the judiciary. The term litigation has two meanings, one related to public law, which is recognized in Article 34 of the Constitution for all individuals and can be called the right to sue, and the other to the private rights of individuals, which can be called the right to litigate in a specific sense Called. In French law, judicial action for litigation in the judiciary is called litigation and in addition to the nature of the disputed right and in other words the nature of the legal relationship between person and object is the basis for objective litigation and the nature of legal relationship between person and other is the basis of personal litigation . Defendant, in order to prevent the formation of proceedings and dismissal of lawsuits or dismissal of the plaintiff's claim and to prevent conviction in the subject matter of the lawsuit, to appropriate and proportionate defense against the issues raised by the plaintiff in substantive issues, legal issues and use of evidence Giving formal issues deals with litigation. Under American law, a petition must be in writing, unless a person is personally summoned and sued. In general, in the law of Iran, France and the United States, it is the responsibility of the litigants to determine the elements of the case and, consequently, its territory, and the judge has no involvement in this matter.