عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study seeks to identify the types of perception, description, definition and analysis of various sciences, including history, psychology, sociology and demography of children and childhood. This research is carried out at the sociological level of science and knowledge with a qualitative approach and documentary analysis method. The results show that the view of history on childhood is a relativistic and constructive view. History does not consider childhood as an absolute and intrinsic thing; a child is a socially constructed thing from the perspective of history. History is the beginning of childhood sociological studies. It is as if it created a basis for relativistic thinking based on social and cultural conditions. Are. Psychology still relies on fixed transtemporal and transcendental rules for a child's development, and development is evolutionary. Childhood is not a goal but a path to achieve the goal which is adulthood, so the emphasis is on the importance of childhood to lay the foundations for healthy physical and mental development for adulthood. Sociology, on the other hand, considers a child to be a social construct that is quite different in terms of time and place. From a sociological point of view, a child is not based on the rule of evolution; Childhood is not a path and a tool to reach adulthood, but childhood itself is a goal. Childhood must be recognized as a goal and from the perspective of children themselves, otherwise adulthood will be recognized as a goal and cognition of children from the perspective of adults. Ultimately, this leads to legitimacy and justification for the exercise of adult domination and power over children.